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Advances in Clinical Diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future

Advances in Clinical Diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future
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Author(s): Ankush Parmar (Panjab University, India), Tanzeer Kaur (Panjab University, India) and Shweta Sharma (Panjab University, India)
Copyright: 2021
Pages: 25
Source title: Strategies to Overcome Superbug Invasions: Emerging Research and Opportunities
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Dimple Sethi Chopra (Punjabi University, India) and Ankur Kaul (Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0307-2.ch004

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Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) holds a central and deadly platform around the globe, affecting mankind with around one-third of the world being affected by latent TB. TB progresses in the body through inhalation process and has a critical discrimination in terms of affecting individuals depending upon age, sex, socio-economic status, and even the stature of nation (developed or developing). The biggest challenge in TB management is accurate, direct, early diagnosis, and an ability to differentiate the type of mycobacterium. The most common and reliable direct methods include tuberculosis skin test (TST), smear microscopy, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), and immuno-chromatographic-based methods. However, culturing the specimen on a mycobacterium specific media is considered the ‘gold standard' for diagnosis of TB by the WHO. Mycobacterium cultures are used extensively for bacilli differentiation and also for predicting drug susceptibility testing in multi-drug-resistant TB. This chapter discusses the merits and demerits of many approaches to distinguish and identify the type of mycobacterium.

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