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Cancer Stem Cells and Advanced Novel Technologies in Oncotherapy

Cancer Stem Cells and Advanced Novel Technologies in Oncotherapy
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Author(s): Shalini Sakthivel (Department of Bio-Medical Science, Bharathidasan University, India), Manjita Srivastava (National Institute of Virology (ICMR), India), Muneesh Kumar Barman (Laboratory for HIV Research, National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune, India), Nerethika Ravichandiran (Department of Bio-Medical Science, Bharathidasan University, India), Salonee Martins (National Institute of Virology (ICMR), India), Meenakshi Singh (Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics Lab (HLA), ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, India), Kailash Chand (National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune, India), Subash C. Sonkar (Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, New Delhi, India) and Prudhvilal Bhukya (National Institute of Virology (ICMR), Pune, India)
Copyright: 2021
Pages: 28
Source title: Handbook of Research on Advancements in Cancer Therapeutics
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Sumit Kumar (National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi, India), Moshahid Alam Rizvi (Jamia Millia Islamia, India) and Saurabh Verma (National Institute of Pathology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-6530-8.ch017

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Abstract

Self-renewal is the most important property of stem cells. Parallel to this, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have an indefinite proliferative ability that drives tumorigenesis. The conventional treatment of cancer includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, which decreases the tumour size. Contrary, targeted therapy against CSCs initially does not shrink the tumour but ultimately causes tumour degeneration. Nanobiotechnology, RNA interference, microRNA are emerging fields with a vital role in targeted therapy against CSCs. The non-protein encoding microRNAs has a major role in cancer treatment since they regulate gene expression during post-transcription. RNAi technology can silence the gene of interest with potency and specificity inhibiting tumour growth. In nanoparticles-based RNA interference, nanocarriers protect RNAi molecules from immune recognition and enzymatic degradation. The cancer cell gene expression profiling using next-generation sequencing helps in understanding the underlying cancer cell mechanisms. The current chapter deals with novel concepts in the treatment of cancer.

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