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Comparing Financing Models for Vocational Education and Training in Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe

Comparing Financing Models for Vocational Education and Training in Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe
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Author(s): Jerald Hondonga (Francistown College of Technical and Vocational Education, Botswana) and Sylvia Manto Ramaligela (University of Limpopo, South Africa)
Copyright: 2020
Pages: 24
Source title: Socio-Economic Perspectives on Vocational Skill Development: Emerging Research and Opportunities
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Ugochukwu Chinonso Okolie (Ebonyi State University, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4145-5.ch003

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Abstract

Funding for vocational skills development is important for effective development of graduate competencies. A comparison of literature on funding models in Botswana, SA, and Zimbabwe reveals common models with alternatives augmenting predominant systems. Funding in the three countries is predominantly through public funding and levy-grant system. Other funding sources include income generating activities, corporate and donor funding, fees from students and student grant-loan schemes. Some challenges in TVET funding include fragmented financing systems, general high cost of financing TVET, lack of commitment by stakeholders, poor image of TVET against academic education, inadequate public budgetary allocations by most governments, lack of research and feedback to TVET planners from labour market to allow planning and adjusting funding models for future skilled manpower requirements. There is need to have adequate funding to ensure that graduates fully gain the necessary competencies.

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