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Anthropo-Sociological Approach of the Criminology and Applied Victimology: Social Unrest, Insecurity, Fear

Anthropo-Sociological Approach of the Criminology and Applied Victimology: Social Unrest, Insecurity, Fear
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Author(s): Rosaria Romano (Suor Orsola Benincasa University of Naples, Italy)
Copyright: 2010
Pages: 21
Source title: Cases on Technologies for Teaching Criminology and Victimology: Methodologies and Practices
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Raffaella Sette (University of Bologna, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-872-7.ch010

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Abstract

Criminology attempts to explain the causes of crime using two different approaches: the anthropological and the sociological. The anthropological approach focuses on man as the author of crime, and seeks to determine the physical, psychological, motivational, and psychosocial factors, that may have led to the criminal conduct. The sociological approach, on the other hand looks at the macro social factors influencing the insurgence of crime. The problem of social control, namely the way in which a society is able to integrate individuals around a single coherent system of customs, traditions and norms, and thus guarantee community security is connected to the concept of social disorder. The concept of social disorder is also linked to that of marginality, characteristic of the immigrant condition: the loss of cultural roots and the lack of integration in the new cultural context places immigrants in the margins of society. Instances of social problems resulting were reported news broadcasts of events occurring towards the end of 2008 in Italy which suddenly brought to light a series of similar events, evidencing ever more frequent occurrences of racism and xenophobia. These episodes spoke for themselves. Evident as the light of day, it was no longer easy to conceal their true matrix. From the homicide of a Milan boy (from http://www.rainews24.rai.it/notizia.asp?newsid=85897) who had allegedly stolen a packet of biscuits, to the homicides of Castel Volturno immigrants (Castel Volturno is a Southern Italian little city) (from http://www.corriere.it/cronache/08_settembre_19/rivolta_castelvolturno_immigrati_de6698dc-8635-11dd-bef9-00144f02aabc.shtml), the violent Parma bashings, the injuries sustained by a young man from Ghana, and to those in Rome against a Chinese citizen. But this is not the end of the story. This study will analyze the Abba’s homicide. Abba was a young man, an Italian citizen, and the son of Burkina Faso immigrants with Italian citizenship; he was born and grown up in Milan. The theoretical premises on which this case is based are those reported in victimology literature, it has been chosen for it’s similarity to other cases of xenophobia and because it brings new insights to present notions existing within criminology and applied victimology, (such as concepts of social disorder and social fear), and as such constitutes a significant contribution to this field of study.

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