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Nonlinear Approach to Brain Signal Modeling

Nonlinear Approach to Brain Signal Modeling
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Author(s): Tugce Balli (University of Essex, UK) and Ramaswamy Palaniappan (University of Essex, UK)
Copyright: 2009
Pages: 6
Source title: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Second Edition
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A. (Information Resources Management Association, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch453

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Abstract

Biological signal is a common term used for time series measurements that are obtained from biological mechanisms and basically represent some form of energy produced by the biological mechanisms. Examples of such signals are electroencephalogram (EEG), which is the electrical activity of brain recorded by electrodes placed on the scalp; electrocardiogram (ECG), which is electrical activity of heart recorded from chest, and electromyogram (EMG), which is recorded from skin as electrical activity generated by skeletal muscles (Akay, 2000). Nowadays, biological signals such as EEG and ECG are analysed extensively for diagnosing conditions like cardiac arrhythmias in the case of ECG and epilepsy, memory impairments, and sleep disorders in case of EEG. Apart from clinical diagnostic purposes, in recent years there have been many developments for utilising EEG for brain computer interface (BCI) designs (Vaughan & Wolpaw, 2006). The field of signal processing provides many methods for analysis of biological signals. One of the most important steps in biological signal processing is the extraction of features from the signals. The assessment of such information can give further insights to the functioning of the biological system. The selection of proper methods and algorithms for feature extraction (i.e., linear/nonlinear methods) are current challenges in the design and application of real time biological signal analysis systems. Traditionally, linear methods are used for the analysis of biological signals (mostly in analysis of EEG). Although the conventional linear analysis methods simplify the implementation, they can only give an approximation to the underlying properties of the signal when the signal is in fact nonlinear. Because of this, there has been an increasing interest for utilising nonlinear analysis techniques in order to obtain a better characterisation of the biological signals. This chapter will lay the backgrounds to linear and nonlinear modeling of EEG signals, and propose a novel nonlinear model based on exponential autoregressive (EAR) process, which proves to be superior to conventional linear modeling techniques.

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