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Pharmaceuticals in Environment: Global Concerns and Regulations

Pharmaceuticals in Environment: Global Concerns and Regulations
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Author(s): Alka Bali (Panjab University, India)
Copyright: 2019
Pages: 27
Source title: Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Paraskevi Papadopoulou (Deree – The American College of Greece, Greece), Christina Marouli (Deree – The American College of Greece, Greece) and Anastasia Misseyanni (Deree – The American College of Greece, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7635-8.ch013

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Abstract

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) constitute an integral part of modern healthcare systems which enter the environment through various routes. Because of their inherent biological activity, their presence in soil and the aquatic environment poses several eco-toxicological problems. Antibiotic contamination of soil and water bodies is leading to the development of microbial resistance to antibiotics and this has been recognized by several global bodies like WHO and EPA. Effective steps need to be taken in this regard including increased awareness, reduced pharmaceutical discharges in environment, green and sustainable pharmaceutical practice by pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals and improved remediation/bioremediation methods. This chapter outlines the various anticipated routes of exposure of pharmaceuticals to the environment along with their detrimental effects, fate and degradation in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The chapter also dwells upon the role of various regulatory bodies and plausible measures that may be adopted to alleviate the problem.

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