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Underwater Wireless Networking Techniques

Underwater Wireless Networking Techniques
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Author(s): Manuel Perez Malumbres (Miguel Hernandez University, Spain), Pedro Pablo Garrido (Miguel Hernandez University, Spain), Carlos Tavares Calafate (Technical University of Valencia, Spain) and Jose Oliver Gil (Technical University of Valencia, Spain)
Copyright: 2009
Pages: -93
Source title: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Second Edition
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A. (Information Resources Management Association, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch615

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Abstract

Underwater sound has probably been used by marine specimens for millions of years as a communication capability among the members of a same species. It is said that in 1490, Leonardo Da Vinci wrote the following sentence: “If you cause your ship to stop and place the head of a long tube in the water and place the outer extremity to your ear, you will hear ships at a great distance from you” (Urick, 1983); being perhaps the first recorded experiments about hearing underwater sounds. In 1826 on Lake Geneva, Switzerland, the physicist Jean-Daniel Colladon, and his mathematician friend Charles-Francois Sturm, made the first recorded attempt to determine the speed of sound in water. In their experiment, the underwater bell was struck simultaneously with ignition of gunpowder on the first boat. The sound of the bell and flash from the gunpowder were observed 10-miles away on the second boat. The time between the gunpowder flash and the sound reaching the second boat was used to calculate the speed of sound in water. Colladon and Sturm were able to determine the speed of sound in water fairly accurately with this method. (Colladon, 1893).

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