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A Robust and Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking Approach Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

A Robust and Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking Approach Based on Particle Swarm Optimization
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Author(s): Mourad R. Mouhamed (Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt & Scientific Research Group in Egypt (SRGE), Cairo, Egypt), Mona Mohamed Soliman (Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt), Ashraf Darwish (Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt) and Aboul Ella Hassanien (Faculty of Computers and Information, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt)
Copyright: 2020
Volume: 12
Issue: 1
Pages: 25
Source title: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development (IJSKD)
Editor(s)-in-Chief: Lincoln Christopher Wood (University of Otago, New Zealand) and Brian J. Galli (Assistant Professor and Graduate Program Director, Master of Science in Engineering Management Industrial Engineering, Hofstra University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSKD.2020010102


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This article presents a robust 3D mesh watermarking approach, which adopts an optimization method of selecting watermark vertices for 3D mesh models. The proposed approach can enhance the imperceptibility of the watermarked model without affecting the robustness and capacity factors. The proposed watermark approach depends on an embedding algorithm that use a clustering strategy, based on K−means clustering algorithm in conjunction with the particle swarm optimization to divide the mesh model vertices into groups. Points of interest set (POIs) are selected from these clustered groups and mark it as watermark vertices where the (POIs) are invariant to most of the geometrical and connectivity attacks. Then, the proposed approach inserts the watermark bit stream in the decimal part of spherical coordinates for these selected watermark vertices. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach proves its superiority compared with state-of-the-art techniques with respect to imperceptibility and robustness.

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