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Definitive Readings in the History, Philosophy, Theories and Practice of Career and Technical Education

Definitive Readings in the History, Philosophy, Theories and Practice of Career and Technical Education
Author(s)/Editor(s): Victor X. Wang (California State University at Long Beach, USA)
Copyright: ©2011
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-747-3
ISBN13: 9781615207473
ISBN10: 1615207473
EISBN13: 9781615207480

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Description

In this information age, career and technical education (CTE) has become a multibillion dollar training enterprise. To make our students more competitive in the labor force and to make our nation economically strong and firms internationally competitive, we have to depend on CTE to train today’s workers of various kinds.

Definitive Readings in the History, Philosophy, Theories and Practice of Career and Technical Education brings together definitive writings on CTE by leading figures and by contemporary thinkers in the history, philosophy, practice and theories of the field. Filling a much needed void in existing literature, this book equips scholars and practitioners with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to succeed in the field of CTE.



Preface

What should be the goals of Career and Technical Education (CTE)? The question lies at the heart of the field of career and technical education, which parallels the efforts of humanity from the Stone Age to modern civilization. A satisfactory answer requires a thorough examination of historical, philosophical, practical and theoretical issues. Almost every community college offers CTE programs in the United States; over two hundred universities offer degree programs in CTE in the nation. Does everyone who practices in this particular field understand the goals of CTE? What about those who make important decisions that will impact those who practice in this field?
CTE has come a long way. Prior to 6000 years ago, there were unorganized CTE programs. Vocational skills were learned from watching one’s elders either at the campsite or in a worksite. Learning could be considered an act to gain knowledge or skill by observation. Trial and error could be the best learning method. Then, there were organized programs in Egypt 6000 years ago where scribes were required to copy documentation from documentation so that training and learning would be more effective. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians began to develop a civilization based on scientific knowledge, government, and religion in the valleys of the Nile, the Tigris, and the Euphrates rivers. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, CTE was called manual training. Later at the turn of the 20th century, it was called manual arts. A year later, it was called industrial arts. Scholars and practitioners used the term vocational education for decades. Eventually, in the 1990s, most programs started to call the field Career and Technical Education to distance the field from being closely associated with blue collar workers because the image of a skilled craftsman may not appeal to our high school students. In fact, we also have a large number of CTE learners preparing for careers requiring a baccalaureate or higher level degree. Therefore, the name “vocational education” no longer reflects what we do and practice in the field. Career and technical education is a vivid name that truly reflects the nature of the field in the 21st Century.
From the cotton mills in 1803 to modern factories, principles, philosophies, theories and practice of CTE by leading individuals have helped shape the field. As the ancient nations focused on apprenticeship systems, the Industrial Revolution put a strain on the apprenticeship programs in the then developing nations, including the United States. In this information age, CTE has become a multibillion dollar training enterprise. To make our students more competitive in the labor force and to make our nation economically strong and firms internationally competitive, we have to depend on CTE to train today’s workers of various kinds. Without a doubt, CTE has become a vibrant source of workforce development across the globe. It has matured into a sound and meaningful program for high school and post-secondary students across interest areas and abilities. After the first passage of the Morrill Act, CTE programs became available at land grant universities. As our nation’s leaders provide more federal funding to this strong field of study, CTE will definitely fulfill its number one objective, that is, to meet the manpower needs of society.
This volume brings together definitive writings on CTE by leading figures and by contemporary thinkers in the History, Philosophy, Practice and Theories of the field. In the past, we had great texts written by prominent figures such as Roy Roberts, Rupert Evans and Edwin Herr. Philosophies and principles advanced by Prosser and Miller reflected the cultural needs of the people in the past. As our society changes, we realize how pervasive technology and information skills are needed to meet the manpower needs of society. At the same time, what we lack is a definitive book on the History, Philosophy, Practice and Theories to prepare people, young and old, for the world of work in the 21st Century. No where can we find a volume like this one. This book has filled a much needed void in the literature and it will equip our scholars and practitioners with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to succeed in the field of CTE.

Acknowledgments

To ensure quality of books, editors/authors have their books go through the double blind review process so that their books will become refereed books in the field. This book is no exception. All entries are written by knowledgeable, distinguished scholars from many prominent research institutions. The reviewers were invited based on their sustained scholarship in this field. Therefore, I extend a huge thank you to the following reviewers/authors:

  • Ernest W. Brewer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
  • Lesley Farmer, California State University, Long Beach, USA
  • Janice Frates, California State University, Long Beach, USA
  • Kerry Lee, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • James B. Martin, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, USA
  • Gregory Petty, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
  • Leane B. Skinner, Auburn University, USA
  • James E. Witte, Auburn University, USA
  • Maria M. Witte, Auburn University, USA
  • Chris Zirkle, Ohio State University, USA

I thank my fellow authors and Zhejiang University Press, especially Dr. Mary Wu for their contribution to this book. This book is designed for the teacher-practitioner and is written from both a scholar’s and a practitioner’s perspective. Because of the rich information provided by this book, individual chapters can be selected according to readers’ specific needs and interests. Thanks also go to my family, Katie Wang, Anni Wang and Anthony Wang for their continued support and encouragement during the many months it took to give birth to this book. Last but not least, I thank all of our readers who have become consumers of this excellent book. This book will assist you in your educational and scholarly endeavors.


Victor C. X. Wang, Ed.D.
Associate Professor of CTE and Adult Education
California State University, Long Beach
Long Beach, California, USA

May 29, 2009
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Author's/Editor's Biography

Victor Wang (Ed.)
Victor X. Wang, a tenured associate professor, is a PhD mentor/faculty member at Florida Atlantic University. Dr. Wang's research and writing activities have addressed workforce education, the foundations of adult education, adult teaching and learning, training, transformative learning, cultural issues in vocational and adult education, distance education, human performance technology, instructional/administrative leadership, assessment and evaluation of learning, and curriculum development. He has published more than 160 journal articles, book chapters and books, including two encyclopedias and two handbooks of research (each over 1,000 pages long) in 11 years and has been a reviewer for five national and international journals. He is the founding editor (Editor-in-Chief) of the International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology. He has won many academic achievement awards from universities in China and in the United States, including the Distinguished Faculty Scholarly & Creative Achievement Award. Dr. Wang has taught extensively as a professor in Chinese universities (1989-1997) prior to coming to study and work (Kansas, Arkansas and California, 1997-2011) in the United States. He has had extensive experience in chairing and mentoring doctoral dissertations. Three of the books he has written and edited have been adopted as required textbooks by major universities in the United States, and in China. In addition, numerous universities worldwide including some Ivy League Universities have cataloged his books and journal articles.

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