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Refraction in the Pediatric Eye Examination

Refraction in the Pediatric Eye Examination
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Author(s): Marilyn Vricella (SUNY College of Optometry, USA)
Copyright: 2022
Pages: 29
Source title: The Pediatric Eye Exam Quick Reference Guide: Office and Emergency Room Procedures
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Lily Zhu-Tam (Citywide Eye Care Optometry, USA)and Ida Chung (College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8044-8.ch008


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Accurate determination of refractive error is one of the most critical components of a pediatric eye examination. According to the National Eye Institute, refractive errors are the most common causes of correctable reduced vision in children. Children with uncorrected refractive error are more likely to have developmental delays, visual-related academic problems, and poor social skills or interactions. In addition to difficulty seeing, uncorrected refractive errors can contribute to developmental deficits of accommodation, binocular vision, and certain forms of strabismus, amblyopia, and perceptual function. The author provides the clinician an in-depth guide on how to determine the refractive error in pediatric patients. The chapter focuses on the specific techniques, advantages and disadvantages, equipment required, and step-by-step procedures for performing retinoscopy, objective refraction, and subjective refraction on children.

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